Drosophila suzukii

The spotted wing Drosophila is a vinegar fly originating from South-East Asia which has invaded many countries in America, Asia and Europe.  This species is included in the EPPO A2 List as recommended to be included amongst the species in phytosanitary quarantine.

World distribution of D. suzukii

Unlike other vinegar flies that feed on rotten fruit, D. Suzukii attacks the early fruit during its ripening stage. It mainly attacks red and soft summer fruits or fruits with reddish tones, such as, strawberries, cherries, blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, plums, peaches, nectarines, apricots, grapes, etc.

fruits with reddish tones


MORPHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY

The spotted wing Drosophila is a small fly (2 to 3.5 mm) yellow-brown in colour with transverse black rings across the abdomen and protruding brick-red eyes. The males have a dark spot near to the edge of each wing, which gives the species its common name.  The larvae are white and cylindrical, reaching 3.5mm in length.

Adult male of D. suzukii

Adult male
© Judy Gallagher

adult female of D. suzukii

Adult female
© Martin Hauser

The life cycle of D. Suzukii varies a lot because it has a very long flight period with many generations, up to 13.  In this way, the generations at the beginning of the year are renewed every few weeks and the end of the season can last up to 10 months in cold areas given that they go through winter in a pupal stage.

 

Eggs

Eggs
© EPPO – https://gd.eppo.int

Larva of third stage

Larva of third stage
© G. Seijak

Pupae

Pupae
© G. Seijak

Biological cycle of spotted wing drosophila

The adults emerge from hibernation when the temperatures reach approximately 10 oC.  After copulation, the fertilised female goes in search of rotten fruit, she inserts her serrated ovipositor to perforate the skin of the fruit and deposits 1 to 3 eggs.  Each female can lay eggs in many fruits, with a laying capacity of more than 350 eggs in their life cycle.


DAMAGES

D. Suzukii places its eggs beneath the skin of mature fruits or in process of maturation, of which a larva is born and feeds on the pulp, producing loss of turgor in fruits and taking away their commercial value. The attacks made by plagues on fruit crops cause substantial economic loss when they are not controlled.

Furthermore, the corresponding holes where the eggs were laid favour secondary infections from pathogens that contribute to the increasing losses.

The area where hatching has taken place is visible on many fruits because of a small scar or “bite” on the skin of the fruit.  After 1 or 2 days, the area around the “bite” smooths out and decreases creating a stain more and more visible.  The depressions in the skin can sometimes exude fluids that can generate infection through bacteria and fungi.

Depending on the state of the fruit or the outside temperature, the larvae can pupate inside the fruit or fall to the floor to get through winter.

Oviposition scar on a cherry

Oviposition scar on a cherry

Sinking by oviposition

Sinking by oviposition

Ovisposition scars and secondary damage<br /> by sap beetles» width=»318″ height=»272″ align=»top» /></p>
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Oviposition scars and secondary damage
by sap beetles (Nitidulidae)

Secondary damage by mold

Secondary damage
by mold

Pupe of Drosophila suzukii on a cherr

Drosophila suzukii pupae on a cherry

Photos: © Martin Hauser


ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII 60 days

NECESSARY MATERIAL

An ECONEX RED CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM trap or ECONEX DISPOSABLE RED TRIANGULAR trap and a diffuser ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII 60 DAYS as attractant.

ECONEX DROSPHILA SUZUKII 60 DAYS
(Code: VA297)

buy6,00 € (excl. VAT)

CROMÁTICA ROJA

ECONEX RED CHROMATIC
40 X 25 CM

(Code: VA253)

triangular roja desechable

ECONEX DISPONSABLE
TRIANGULAR

(Code: TA253)

buy1,12 € (sin IVA) buy2,41 € (excl. VAT)

The ECONEX RED CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM trap is an adhesive chromatic trap consisting of a light resistant red polyethylene sheet, coated on both sides with a contact adhesive, without solvents, and protected by a strips of silicone paper, to retain the insects. It has four holes in the corners, to facilitate its installation.
Activation of the trap: take away the silicone paper that covers the adhesive and hang the diffuser from one of the holes on the trap, using the hanger provided.  Do not place the metallic part in contact with the adhesive.

Activation of the ECONEX RED CHROMATIC
The ECONEX DISPOSABLE RED TRIANGULAR trap is made of a light resistant red polyethylene sheet. The inside is coated with a contact adhesive, without solvents, and protected by a strip of silicone paper, to retain the insects.  The trap comes with a hanger and it has holes in the corners to be able to hang it.  The trap is presented unfolded, with measures of 40 x 23 cm. Once folded, it has a prism shape, measuring 12 x 23 x 13 cm.
Set-up and activation of the trap: fold the trap along the dotted lines, without introducing the upper tab; remove the silicone paper that covers the adhesive and place the attractant diffuser (by the non-metallic side) in the centre of the adhesive sheet, where it will remain fixed because of the glue.  Introduce the upper tab into the groove to fix the shape of the trap and place the hanger.

Set-up and activation of RED CHROMATIC
Both the ECONEX RED CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM trap and the ECONEX DISPOSABLE RED TRIANGULAR trap stand out for their simplicity of use and and will be operative until the attractant diffuser runs out or the adhesive surface has been saturated with insects.


DETECTION AND MONITORING

We will use 1 to 2 traps per hectare, placed at the height of the crop. The traps must be active at least two weeks before the flight period of the insect and two weeks after the end of the same.


EXHAUSTIVE MONITORING

The user can increase the number of traps per ha according to their needs and characteristics of the farm..


FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE IN THE NUMBER OF TRAPS REQUIRED

Pest population, bordering crops, level of control required, etc.

An important factor is crop size. More traps are needed in small and irregular sized crops than in uniform plots with a larger surface area. Another important factor is the distance of some plots from other plots that have Drosophila suzukii. In these cases, the boundaries of the plots should be reinforced, increasing the number of traps per ha.


STORING THE DIFFUSERS

The diffusers should be stored in their original packaging in a refrigerator at 4 oC; or in a freezer at -18 oC, in which case they remain effective for 2 and 4 years respectively.


PACKAGING

Corrugated cardboard box of 250 units (25 packs of 10 units).
Measurements of the box: 0.60×0.40×0.35 m (length x width x height).
Weight of the box: 21,100 kg.
Number of boxes per pallet: 20.
Measurements of the pallet: 1.20×0.80×1.95 m (length x width x height).
Weight of the pallet: 432 kg.

Pack of 10 units

Pack of 10 units.
Includes a product
information leaflet.

Box of 250 units

Box of 250 units.
(25 packs x 10 units)


Recommended information:

ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII 60 DAYS LEAFLET

Leaflet in PDF format that can be downloaded by clicking on the image.


ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUIDO

MATERIAL NECESARIO

ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS(Code: TA268) and a bottle of ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID ATTRACTANT (Code: VA427).

ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID ATTRACTANT

ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII
LIQUID ATTRACTANT

(Code: VA427)

Buy5.25 € (excl. VAT)

ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS

ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS
(Code: TA268)

Buy2.19 € (excl. VAT)

ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID ATTRACTANT is a bottled active substance. The content of the bottle is poured into the ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS, which –after that– must be hanged in an appropriate place, in order to capture Drosophila suzukii.

ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID ATTRACTANT comes in a 250 cm3 bottle, which contains 190 ml of the attractant.

Once the liquid attractant is in the trap, it has a duration of 60 days in normal field conditions or until it shows signs of deterioration.

ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS is a disposable trap in the form of a closed bottle with a capacity of 1 liter, made of PET, with 4 transverse holes with inserts of red polypropylene with frustoconical shape. These inserts facilitate the entry of the target insects, both by chromotropic attraction and by their funnel shape, additionally preventing their exit.

The trap is used in combination with ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID ATTRACTANT to capture Drosophila suzukii.

The trap includes a wire hanger to suspend it from a branch or on any other support.

RECOMMENDED USE (INSTRUCTIONS):

Fill the bottle of attractant with water up to the indicated level on the label.

The bottle accumulates pressure inside it which may be released when the liquid attractant bottle is filled with water causing a slight effervescence.

After that, take the red bottle cap of ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS off and pour the content of the ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID ATTRACTANT (after diluting it with water) into the trap. Then, close the bottle cap again, and hang the trap from a branch on the sunny side of the tree or on a specific support at a height of 1.5 to 2 m.

Cultivos afectados


MASS TRAPPING

Place between 50 to 100 traps per hectare.

On the borders of the plots, it will be necessary to place a barrier of traps separated 10 to 15 metres from each other.

Check on the trap regularly in order to evaluate the condition of the attractant. In case you observe signs of deterioration or smell of putrefaction, remove it, wash the bottle with soap and water, dry it and refill it with new ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID ATTRACTANT and install the trap again.

The traps must be activate at least 2 weeks before and after the start of the target insect’s flight period.


FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NUMBER OF TRAPS NEEDED

The pest population, the bordering crops, the level of control required, etc….

An important factor is the size of the crops. In small and irregular crops, a greater number of traps are required than in larger and more uniform plots.Another important factor is the distance between plots that have Drosophila suzukii. In these cases, the boundaries of the plots should be reinforced, increasing the number of traps per ha.


PRODUCT STORAGE

The product must be stored in its original packaging without opening it in a cool and dry place. Try to avoid sunlight. In these conditions, it will last for 12 months from the production date.


ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID ATTRACTANT PACKAGING

Corrugated cardboard box of 16 units.
Box size: 0.24 x 0.32 x 0.22 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 4,9 kg
No. of boxes per pallet: 70
Pallet size: 1.20 x 0.80 x 2 m (ancho x largo x alto).
Pallet weight: 350 kg

Box of 16 units

Box of 16 units


ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS PACKAGING

Corrugated cardboard box of 35 units.
Box size: 0.60 x 0.42 x 0.27 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 2.10 kg
No. of boxes per pallet: 28
Pallet size: 1.20 x 0.80 x 2 m (ancho x largo x alto).
Pallet weight: 69 kg

Box of 35 units

Box of 35 units


Recommended information:

ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID LEAFLET

Leaflet in PDF format that can be downloaded by clicking on the image.

ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID LEAFLET


ECONEX WEB RESOURCES

ECONEX corporate website section that allows you to access online information on ECONEX solutions for the biocontrol of other especially relevant agricultural and forestry pests.

To access the ECONEX WEB RESOURCES click on the image.

web resources