Drosophila Suzukii

Biocontrol of the Spotted wing drosophila

Common name: Spotted wing drosophila
Scientific name: Drosophila suzukii
Order: Diptera
Affects: Cherries, strawberries, raspberries, cranberries, blackberries, figs, plums, apricots, peaches…
Main season: All year round

Drosophila suzukii

General information

The Spotted wing drosophila is a vinegar (fruit) fly originating from South-East Asia which has invaded many countries in America, Asia and Europe. This species is included in the EPPO A2 List as recommended for inclusion amongst the plant quarantine species.


Types of fruits

Unlike other vinegar flies that feed on rotten fruit,D. suzukii attacks the early fruit during its ripening stage. It mainly attacks red and soft summer fruits or fruits with reddish tones, such as: strawberries, cherries, blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, plums, peaches, nectarines, apricots and grapes amongst others.


Tipos de frutos rojos

This pest can produce several generations a year, depending on the climatology of the area. During the cold season, this pest usually spends it in the ground as a pupa. In mild climates it can produce up to 7 or 8 generations.


Morphology and biology

The Spotted wing drosophila is a small fly (2 mm to 3,5 mm). It is a slightly yellow or brown colour with dark bands on the abdomen and protruding red eyes. The males have a dark spot near the tip of each wing, which gives the species its common name. The larvae are white and cylindrical, growing to 3.5mm in length.

The life cycle of D. Suzukii varies a lot because it has a very long flight period with many generations, up to 13. In this way, the generations at the beginning of the year are renewed every few weeks and the end of the season can last up to 10 months in cold areas given that they go through winter in a pupal stage.

Adult male drosophila suzukii

Adult male

© Judy Gallagher

Adult female de drosophila suzukii

Adult female

© Martin Hauser


Eggs drosophila suzukii

Eggs

© EPPO – https://gd.eppo.int

Third instar larva

Third instar larva

© G. Seijak

Pupae drosophila suzukii

Pupae

© G. Seijak


Biological cycle Drosophila suzukii



The adults emerge from hibernation when the temperatures reach 10°C approximately. After copulation, the fertilised female goes in search of ripe fruit, inserting her serrated ovipositor to perforate the skin and deposit 1 to 3 eggs. Each female can lay eggs on many fruits, with a laying capacity of more than 350 eggs in her life cycle.


Damage

D. suzukii clays its eggs under the skin of ripe or ripening fruits, from which a larva is born. It grows inside the fruit and feeds on the pulp, causing the fruit to lose its turgor and take away its commercial value. The attacks made by this pest on fruit crops cause substantial economic loss when they are not controlled. In addition, the holes corresponding to where the eggs are laid favour secondary infections from pathogens, which contribute to increasing losses.

The area where hatching has taken place is visible on many fruits because of a small scar or “bite” on the skin of the fruit. After 1 or 2 days, the area around the “bite” smooths out and decreases creating an increasingly more visible stain. The depressions in the skin can sometimes exude fluids that cause infection through bacteria and fungi.

Depending on the condition of the fruit or the outside temperature, the larvae may pupate inside the fruit or fall to the ground for the winter.

Oviposition scar on a cherry

Oviposition scar on a cherry

Depression in the skin due to oviposition

Depression in the skin due to oviposition

Oviposition scars and secondary damage caused by sap beetles (Nitidulidae)

Oviposition scars and secondary damage
caused by sap beetles Nitidulidae

Secondary damage caused by fungus

Secondary damage caused by fungus


Drosophila suzukii pupae inside a cherry

Pupas de Drosophila suzukii inside a cherry

Photographs: © Martin Hauser




ECONEX SOLUTIONS OVERVIEW

BIOCONTROL with ECONEX solutions


ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII 60 DAYS

DETECTION AND MONITORING

Food attractant diffuser for the attraction of both sexes of the species Drosophila suzukii, with a duration of 60 days in normal field conditions.

ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII 60 DAYS

ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII 60 DAYS
Packaging, hanger and attractant diffuser.
(Code: VA297)

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The diffuser is individually packaged in an aluminium sachet with labelled specifications.
Once removed from the packaging, the diffuser needs no activation or opening, just placed correctly in the trap.


Detection and monitoring

1 to 2 traps per hectare, should be placed at the same height as the crops. The traps should be active at least 2 weeks before the flight period of the insect and 2 weeks after the flight period.


Necessary material

An ECONEX RED CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM or ECONEX DISPOSABLE RED TRIANGULAR trap and an ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII 60 DAYS attractant diffuser.


ECONEX TRIANGULAR ROJA DESECHABLE


ECONEX DISPOSABLE RED TRIANGULAR
(Code: TA253)

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ECONEX RED CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM


ECONEX RED CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM
(Code: TA252)

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The ECONEX RED CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM trap is an adhesive chromatic trap consisting of a red polyethylene sheet that is resistant to light, coated on both sides with a solvent-free contact adhesive and protected by two strips of silicone paper, to retain the insects. It has a hole in each corner so that installing the trap is easier.

Activation of the trap: take away the silicone paper that covers the adhesive and hang the diffuser from one of the holes on the trap, using the paperclip hanger provided. Do not place the metallic part in contact with the adhesive.

ECONEX DISPOSABLE TRIANGULAR


The ECONEX DISPOSABLE RED TRIANGULAR etrap is made of a red polyethylene sheet that is resistant to light. The inside is coated with a solvent-free contact adhesive and protected by a strip of silicone paper, to retain the insects. The trap comes with a paperclip hanger and has holes in the corners to be able to hang it. The trap is presented unfolded, with measurements of 40 x 23 cm. Once folded, it is a prism shape, measuring 12 x 23 x 13 cm.

Set-up and activation of the trap: fold the trap along the dotted lines, without inserting the upper tab; remove the silicone paper that covers the adhesive and place the attractant diffuser (on the non-metallic side) in the centre of the adhesive sheet, where it will remain fixed because of the glue. Insert the upper tab into the groove to fix the shape of the trap and place the hanger.

ECONEX DISPOSABLE TRIANGULAR


Both the ECONEX RED CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM trap and the ECONEX DISPOSABLE RED TRIANGULAR trap stand out because they are easy to use and will remain operative until the attractant diffuser runs out or the adhesive surface has been saturated with insects.


Factors that influence in the number of traps needed

The pest population, bordering crops, level of control required, etc.

One important factor is the size of the plot. In small and irregular plots, a greater number of traps is required than in larger and more uniform plots. Another important factor is the distance between plots that have Drosophila suzukii. In such cases, the plot borders must be reinforced and the number of traps per hectare increased.


STORING THE DIFFUSERS

The diffusers must be stored in their original packaging and in the refrigerator at 4 °; or in the freezer at -18 °C, in which case they will last for 2 years and 4 years respectively.


ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LÍQUID

MASS CAPTURES

Liquid food attractant for the attraction of both sexes of Drosophila suzukii. It is used as bait inside the Drosophila suzukii. ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS traps.

They come in 250 cm³ bottles, with 190 ml of attractant.

Once the liquid attractant is in the trap, it has an approximate duration of 60 days in normal field conditions or until it shows signs of deterioration.


Mass captures


Install 50 to 100 traps per hectare.

On the borders of the plots, it will be necessary to place a barrier of traps separated 10 to 15 metres apart from each other.

Check the traps regularly to evaluate the condition of the attractant. If you observe signs of deterioration or the smell of putrefaction, remove it and wash the bottle with soap and water. Then dry the bottle, refill it with a new ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID ATTRACTANT and install the trap again.

The traps must be active at least 2 weeks before the start of the target insect’s flight period and 2 weeks after.


Necessary material

An ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS (Code: TA268) and a bottle of ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID ATTRACTANT (Code: VA427).


ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID ATTRACTANT


ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LÍQUID
(Code: VA427)

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ECONEX difusser drosophila suzukii 60 days


ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS
(Code: TA268)

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The ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS is a disposable trap in the form of a bottle with a 1 litre capacity.

The bottle is made of PET and has 4 diagonal holes with red polypropylene cone-shaped inserts. These inserts make it easier for the target insects to enter through chromotropic attraction, as well as their funnel shape. At the same time, the inserts stop the target insects from escaping.

The trap is used together with the ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID ATTRACTANT to capture individuals of the species Drosophila suzukii.

The trap is provided with a wire hanger that is specifically designed to be able to hang it from a branch or from another type of support.

Recommended use: Fill the bottle of attractant with water up to the line indicated on the label.

Opening the bottle cap may release pressure and a slight foam could form when filling with water.

Open the red bottle cap of the ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS trap and pour the contents of the already diluted attractant bottle inside it. Then hang it on the sunny part of a tree branch or on an artificial support between 1,5 and 2 m high.


Econex Cultivos afectados drosophila suzukii



Factors that influence in the number of traps needed


The pest population, bordering crops, level of control required, etc.

One important factor is the size of the plot. In small and irregular plots, a greater number of traps is required than in larger and more uniform plots.

Another important factor is the distance between plots that have Drosophila suzukii. In such cases, the plot borders must be reinforced. Therefore, a density of at least 20 traps per hectare or more may be required in the case of mass captures.


Packaging ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII 60 DAYS


ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII 60 DAYS

Corrugated cardboard box of 240 units (24 packs of 10 units).
Box size: 0,60 x 0,40 x 0,35 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 22,50 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20
Pallet size: 1,20 x 0,80 x 1,95 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 460 kg.

Pack of 10 units

Pack of 10 units.

Box of 240 units

Box of 240 units.
(24 packs of 10 units)


ECONEX DISPOSABLE RED TRIANGULAR

Corrugated cardboard box of 250 units .
Box size: 0,42 x 0,29 x 0,21 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 13,10 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 50
Pallet size: 1,10 x 1,00 x 1,25 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 665 kg.

Pack of 250 units

Box of 250 units.


ECONEX RED CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM - 1 UNIT.

Corrugated cardboard box of 250 units.
Box size: 0,42 x 0,29 x 0,21 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 16 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 50
Pallet size: 1,10 x 1,00 x 1,25 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 810 kg.

Box of250 unidades

Box of 250 units.


Embalaje ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LÍQUIDO


Packaging for ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID

Corrugated cardboard box of 16 units.
Box size: 0,24 x 0,32 x 0,22 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 5,10 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 45
Pallet size: 1,20 x 0,80 x 1,24 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 220 kg.

Box of 16 unidades

Box of 16 units.


ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS

Corrugated cardboard box of 35 units.
Box size: 0,60 x 0,42 x 0,27 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 210 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 28.
Pallet size: 1,20 x 0,80 x 2,05 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 75 kg.

Box of 35 units

Box of 35 units.


Recommended information:


ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII 60 DAYS

The leaflet can be downloaded in PDF format by clicking on the image.

LEAFLET ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII 60 DAYS

ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID

The leaflet can be downloaded in PDF format by clicking on the image.

LEAFLET ECONEX DROSOPHILA SUZUKII LIQUID


ECONEX WEB RESOURCES

Section of the ECONEX corporate website that allows you access to online information about ECONEX solutions for the biocontrol of other relevant agricultural and forest pests.

To access ECONEX WEB RESOURCES click on the image.

Web resources